Major Minerals Complete List

Main two minerals group page and the two essential vitamins page.

SODIUM

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • acid base balance
  • maintenance of blood pressure
  • homoeostasis of digestive and nervous system
  • maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
  • nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction

AI:

  • 0-6 months: 120 mg/day
  • 7-12 months: 170 mg/day
  • 1-3 years of age 200-400 mg/day
  • 4-8 years of age 300-600 mg/day
  • 9-13 years of age 400-800 mg/day
  • 14-18 years of age 460-920 mg/day
  • Men and Women: 460-920mg/day
  • Pregnancy & Lactation: 460-920mg/day

UL:

  • Adults: 2300mg/day

Deficiency Symptoms: very unlikely as salt is present in all processed food and generally we are getting much more than the adequate daily intake. Major loss can occur. Due to vomiting and/or diarrhoea and excessive sweating.

  • muscle and abdominal cramps
  • dizziness, fatigue, mental apathy, headaches
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea, diarrhoea

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • acute hypertension
  • fluid retention
  • cognitive dysfunction

Food Sources:

  • table salt
  • meats (corn beef), processed meats
  • pickles, sauerkraut
  • salted butter
  • moderate amounts in vegetables

CHLORIDE

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • maintenance of intracellular fluid volume
  • acid base balance
  • part of HCL necessary for digestive processes
  • transmission of nerve impulses
  • required for activation of amylase

AI and UL have not been specified, expect in one reference where it is established at 750mg/day for adults.

Deficiency Symptoms: (do not occur under normal circumstances)

  • hypochlorhydria
  • poor digestion
  • potassium deficiency

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • vomiting

Food Sources:

  • kelp, celery, olives, tomatoes
  • table salt, sea water
  • large amounts in processed foods
  • moderate amounts in meat, milk, eggs

POTASSIUM

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • normal fluid and electrolyte balance
  • blood pressure control
  • supports cell integrity
  • essential for protein synthesis and conversion of blood sugar into glycogen
  • nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
  • intracellular acid-base balance
  • regulation of cell permeability and pH

AI:

  • Men: 3800mg/day
  • Women: 2800mg/day
  • Pregnancy: 2800mg/day
  • Lactation: 3200mg/day

Deficiency Symptoms:

  • irregular heartbeat
  • tachycardia
  • muscular weakness
  • bone and joint pain
  • cellular oedema
  • irritability
  • continuous thirst
  • dehydration

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • muscular weakness
  • vomiting
  • cardiac arrhythmia
  • cardiac and nervous system depression (chronic effects of toxicity)

Food Sources:

  • all vegetables
  • all whole foods (meats, milks, grains, legumes)
  • citrus fruits, banana, avocado, apricots
  • nuts

CALCIUM

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • bone and teeth mineralisation, muscle contraction and relaxation
  • activates insulin
  • calcitonin and thyroid hormone release
  • maintenance of electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • nerve transmission
  • blood clotting

RDI:

  • Adolescents: 1300mg/day (14-18 yr)
  • Men: 1000mg/day (19-70 yr)
  • Men: 1300mg/day (>70 yr)
  • Women: 1000mg/day (19-50 yr)
  • Women: 1300mg/day (>50 yr)
  • Pregnancy & Lactation: 1300mg/day (14-18 yr)
  • Pregnancy & Lactation: 1000mg/day (19-50 yr)

UL:

  • Adults: 2500mg/day

Deficiency Symptoms:

  • stunted growth in children
  • bone loss in adults (osteoporosis)
  • agitation, anxiety
  • back pain (lower back pain), sciatica
  • brittle finger nails, tooth decay and loss
  • cognitive impairment

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • constipation
  • increased risk of urinary stone formation
  • interference with absorption of other minerals
  • muscle weakness, fatigue, memory deficit
  • increased viral infections

Food Sources:

  • dairy products, canned fish with bones
  • almond, buckwheat, sesame seeds, legumes
  • green leafy vegetables (silver beet, broccoli bok choy, kale), turnips

PHOSPHORUS

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • bone and teeth growth and mineralisation
  • part of genetic material
  • important in energy metabolism, most B vitamins require phosphorus for activation
  • component of phospholipids
  • maintain acid-base balance

RDI:

  • Adolescents: 1250mg/day (14-18 yr)
  • Adults: 1000mg/day
  • Pregnancy & Lactation: 1000mg/day

UL:

  • Adults (19-70 yr): 4000mg/day
  • Pregnancy: 3500mg/day

Deficiency Symptoms:

  • bone pain, muscular weakness
  • cardiac arrhythmia’s
  • anxiety, fatigue
  • numbness
  • nervous disorders
  • vertigo, tinnitus

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • calcification of non-skeletal tissues ( particularly kidneys)
  • prevents absorption of minerals (calcium, chromium)

Food Sources:

  • all animal tissue (fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk)
  • almonds, cashews
  • sesame seeds
  • soy beans, chickpeas

MAGNESIUM

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • supports bone mineralisation
  • co-factor and stimulator of many enzymes in energy production
  • maintenance of heart muscle
  • normal muscle contraction
  • nerve impulse transmission
  • DNA replication
  • regulation of body temperature, functioning of immune system
  • regulates intracellular calcium, potassium, sodium

RDI:

  • Adolescents: 410mg/day (boys 14-18 yr) & 360mg/day (girls 14-18 yrs)
  • Men: 420mg/day
  • Women: 320mg/day
  • Pregnancy: 400mg/day (14-18 yr) & 360mg/day (19-50 yr)
  • Lactation: 360mg/day (14-18 yr) & 320mg/day (19-50 yr)

UL:

  • Adults: 350mg/day of non-food magnesium

Deficiency Symptoms:

  • weakness, confusion, behavioural disturbances, irritability
  • muscle movements
  • cold hands and feet
  • calcification of arteries, irregular heart beat, palpitation
  • chronic fatigue
  • PMS
  • tremors, vertigo

Toxicity Symptoms: from non-food sources.

  • diarrhoea
  • alkalosis
  • dehydration

Food Sources:

  • nuts (almonds, cashews), seeds, legumes, whole grains
  • dark green vegetables, parsnip, lima beans
  • kelp
  • brewer’s yeast

SULFATE (Oxidised form of the mineral sulfur)

Functions Facilitated in the Body:

  • component of key amino acid
  • required for maintenance and production of the body’s own proteins
  • involved in antioxidant activity and liver function
  • detoxification

RDI: Body’s needs for sulfate are easily met through normal protein intake, there is no recommended RDI.

Deficiency Symptoms: none known.

  • protein deficiency occur first

Toxicity Symptoms:

  • only occur if sulfur containing amino acids would be consumed in excess

Food Sources:

  • all protein containing foods (meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk)
  • nuts and legumes

Tags:

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply